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Measuring levels of corruption and assessing anti-corruption measures
Topic Outline

Students will learn how to monitor levels of corruption, to assess how robust corruption controls and governance procedures are, and how to apply them. Assessment is crucial to tracking changes and progress in addressing corruption. Assessment may apply to any of the basic concepts related to corruption, from the form and category of corruption, and to its causes and consequences. Assessment is relevant to how extensively and effectively anticorruption frameworks are being applied.

a) Evolution of anti-corruption movement and methods of assessment


b) Efforts to measure corruption

At the global, regional and national levels, some key measurement tools either possessing corruption measurement components or designed to assess corruption directly are:

  • Transparency International (TI)'s measurement tools, such as the Corruption Perception Index, the Bribe Payer Index, the World Corruption Barometer, and the National Integrity System Assessment.
  • The World Bank's Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI), a set of six indicators (voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption), one of which focuses specifically on corruption.
  • The Ibrahim Index of African Governance, one example of a regional tool with corruption measurement elements, which consists of four measurement categories: safety and the rule of law, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunity, and human development. It consists of a total of 84 indicators. The safety and rule of law categories comprise four subcategories: personal safety, rule of law, accountability and corruption, and national security.
  • The Global Integrity Index, which assesses the existence, effectiveness and citizen access to key national-level anticorruption mechanisms used to hold governments accountable. The Index does not measure corruption directly; rather, it measures risks of corruption and prescribes actions to be used against it by enhancing government accountability, transparency, and citizen oversight.
    The Index is reportedly generated by aggregating more than 300 Integrity indicators gathered from each country covered.
  • The World Bank Governance and Anticorruption (GAC) Diagnostics Surveys is a country-specific tool used to assess corruption at the national level.
    - National authorities (public records, statistics), Civil Society Organisations
    - Different methodologies
    - Strengths and weaknesses



Academic Article and books:

De Jaegere, S., Principles for Anti-Corruption Agencies, Jindal Journal of Public Journal, Vol. 1, No.1, August 2012
Moroff, H., Schmidt-Pfister, D., Anti-Corruption Movements, Mechanisms, and Machines - An Introduction, Global Crime, Vol. 11, No. 2., May 2010, pp. 89, 98
Sampford, C., Shacklock, A., Connors, C., Galtung, F. (eds.), Measuring Corruption,. Law, Ethics and Governance Series, Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, England, 2006

International Organisation:

Conference of the State Parties to the United Nation Convention against Corruption, Methodologies, including evidence-based approaches, for assessing areas of special vulnerabilities to corruption in the public and private sectors, Open ended Intergovernmental Working Group on the Prevention of Corruption, Vienna 13-14 December 2010
Wolf, S., Assessing Eastern Europe's anti-corruption performance: Views from the Council of Europe, OECD, and Transparency International, Global Crime, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2010, Special Issue: Anti-Corruption for Eastern Europe, pp. 99-121
OECD, Identification and Quantification of the Proceeds of Bribery: A joint OECD-StAR analysis, 2012
Ibrahim Index of African Governance - IIAG
World Bank Governance and Anticorruption (GAC), Country Diagnostic Survey
Abed, George T. & Sanjeev Gupta. 2002. Governance, Corruption, and Economic Performance. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.pp.29-42.

Website and blogs:

World Bank - Worldwide Governance Indicator (WGI)
Corruption Perception Index
Bribery Payers Index
Transparency International
Global Corruption Barometer
National integrity System Assessments
Group of State against Corruption (GRECO)


c) Efforts to assess anti-corruption measures and governance


Measurement of corruption and measurement of governance are not the same, although they may overlap or supplement one another. Governance measurements encompass a country's socio-economic and political processes. Corruption is an aspect of governance which may be treated as a separate sphere or a cross-cutting governance problem. Certain good governance indicators can be used to help measure corruption risks and trends. Overall, good governance practices are assumed to contribute to reducing corruption. Controlling corruption as a separate or cross-cutting undertaking further reinforces a system of governance.

  • OECD Doing Business
  • World Bank
  • Civil Society Organisations




d) Domestic Efforts

  • Local sector-specific laws
  • Brazil Anti-Corruption Performance Indicator and Benchmark Approach to assessing how government initiatives tackle and reduce incentives or opportunities for corruption



Academic Article:

Di Puppo, L. Anti-Corruption Interventions in Georgia, Global Crime, Volume 11, No. 2, 2010, pp. 220-236
HKU School of Professional and Continuing Education, Comparative Studies of Anti-Corruption Systems for 38 Jurisdictions, The 10th Anniversary Commemorative Book, Postgraduate Certificate in Corruption Studies, The University of Hong Kong, November 2012, Section D - Integrated Group Projects, Comparative Studies of Anti-Corruption Structures and Strategies in Different Countries around the World, pp. 59-166
HKU School of Professional and Continuing Education, Comparative Studies of Anti-Corruption Systems for 38 Jurisdictions, The 10th Anniversary Commemorative Book, Postgraduate Certificate in Corruption Studies, The University of Hong Kong, November 2012, Section E - Key Success Factors of the Hong Kong Model, pp. 167-174
Passas, N. and Johnston, M., Governance and Anti-Corruption Measurement Methods - Study Report, NPMJ, June 2011
دراسة مقارنة في مدى استجابة التشريع العراقي لاتفاقية الامم المتحدة لمكافحة الفساد لسنة

e) Technical Assistance



International Organisation:

UNODC Anti-Corruption Strategy

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